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Mirror, mirror: Men are most narcissistic of us all

It took three decades and a pool of 475,000 study participants, but research has revealed that men are more narcissistic than women, on average.

Such is the case across multiple generations and regardless of age, according to the study, which was published in the journal Psychological Bulletin.

Men are more narcissistic than women, and a recent study links societal (...)

Men are more narcissistic than women, and a recent study links societal gender expectations as one of the main reasons why. © holbox / shutterstock.com

"Narcissism is associated with various interpersonal dysfunctions, including an inability to maintain healthy long-term relationships, unethical behavior and aggression," says lead author Emily Grijalva, PhD, assistant professor of organization and human resources in the UB School of Management.

In the study, the researchers examined more than 355 journal articles, dissertations, manuscripts and technical manuals in search of evidence that one gender exhibits more narcissism than the other in terms of its three main characteristics. Entitlement turned out to be the aspect of narcissism the most exploited by men, who proved themselves more likely than women to feel entitled to privileges.

Men are also more likely to take charge and be assertive in their quest for power and authority, says Dr. Grijalva, describing an aspect of narcissism that can emerge as a positive trait.

Men and women, however, are equally likely to display vanity or self-absorption.
Yet a historical analysis of the data from college students between 1990 and 2013 shows that men have not become more narcissistic, they’ve been that way for a while.

"Individuals tend to observe and learn gender roles from a young age, and may face backlash for deviating from society’s expectations," says Dr. Grijalva. "In particular, women often receive harsh criticism for being aggressive or authoritative, which creates pressure for women, more so than for men, to suppress displays of narcissistic behaviour."

AFP/Relaxnews

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